|Title||Technical features of a CCD video camera system to record cardiac fluorescence data.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1997|
|Authors||Baxter, B, Davidenko, JM, Loew, LM, Wuskell, JP, Jalife, J|
|Journal||Ann Biomed Eng|
|Keywords||Action Potentials, Algorithms, Animals, Body Surface Potential Mapping, Calibration, Computer Simulation, Electric Conductivity, Fluorescent Dyes, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Models, Cardiovascular, Sheep, Ventricular Function, Video Recording|
A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to acquire movies of transmembrane activity from thin slices of sheep ventricular epicardial muscle stained with a voltage-sensitive dye. Compared with photodiodes, CCDs have high spatial resolution, but low temporal resolution. Spatial resolution in our system ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 mm/pixel; the acquisition rate was 60, 120, or 240 frames/sec. Propagating waves were readily visualized after subtraction of a background image. The optical signal had an amplitude of 1 to 6 gray levels, with signal-to-noise ratios between 1.5 and 4.4. Because CCD cameras integrate light over the frame interval, moving objects, including propagating waves, are blurred in the resulting movies. A computer model of such an integrating imaging system was developed to study the effects of blur, noise, filtering, and quantization on the ability to measure conduction velocity and action potential duration (APD). The model indicated that blurring, filtering, and quantization do not affect the ability to localize wave fronts in the optical data (i.e., no systematic error in determining spatial position), but noise does increase the uncertainty of the measurements. The model also showed that the low frame rates of the CCD camera introduced a systematic error in the calculation of APD: for cutoff levels > 50%, the APD was erroneously long. Both noise and quantization increased the uncertainty in the APD measurements. The optical measures of conduction velocity were not significantly different from those measured simultaneously with microelectrodes. Optical APDs, however, were longer than the electrically recorded APDs. This APD error could be reduced by using the 50% cutoff level and the fastest frame rate possible.
|Alternate Journal||Ann Biomed Eng|