An auditory brain-computer interface (BCI).

TitleAn auditory brain-computer interface (BCI).
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsNijboer, F, Furdea, A, Gunst, I, Mellinger, J, McFarland, DJ, Birbaumer, N, Kübler, A
JournalJournal of neuroscience methods
Date Published01/2008
Keywordsauditory feedback, brain-computer interface, EEG, locked-in state, motivation, sensorimotor rhythm

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) translate brain activity into signals controlling external devices. BCIs based on visual stimuli can maintain communication in severely paralyzed patients, but only if intact vision is available. Debilitating neurological disorders however, may lead to loss of intact vision. The current study explores the feasibility of an auditory BCI. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated in three training sessions consisting of 30 2-3 min runs in which they learned to increase or decrease the amplitude of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) of the EEG. Half of the participants were presented with visual and half with auditory feedback. Mood and motivation were assessed prior to each session. Although BCI performance in the visual feedback group was superior to the auditory feedback group there was no difference in performance at the end of the third session. Participants in the auditory feedback group learned slower, but four out of eight reached an accuracy of over 70% correct in the last session comparable to the visual feedback group. Decreasing performance of some participants in the visual feedback group is related to mood and motivation. We conclude that with sufficient training time an auditory BCI may be as efficient as a visual BCI. Mood and motivation play a role in learning to use a BCI.


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