|Title||EEG-based communication: improved accuracy by response verification.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1998|
|Authors||Wolpaw, J, Ramoser, H, McFarland, DJ, Pfurtscheller, G|
|Journal||IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society|
|Keywords||Computer-Assisted, Signal Processing|
Humans can learn to control the amplitude of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in specific frequency bands over sensorimotor cortex and use it to move a cursor to a target on a computer screen. EEG-based communication could provide a new augmentative communication channel for individuals with motor disabilities. In the present system, each dimension of cursor movement is controlled by a linear equation. While the intercept in the equation is continually updated, it does not perfectly eliminate the impact of spontaneous variations in EEG amplitude. This imperfection reduces the accuracy of cursor movement. We evaluated a response verification (RV) procedure in which each outcome is determined by two opposite trials (e.g., one top-target trial and one bottom-target trial). Success, or failure, on both is required for a definitive outcome. The RV procedure reduces errors due to imperfection in intercept selection. Accuracy for opposite-trial pairs exceeds that predicted from the accuracies of individual trials, and greatly exceeds that for same-trial pairs. The RV procedure should be particularly valuable when the first trial has >2 possible targets, because the second trial need only confirm or deny the outcome of the first, and it should be applicable to nonlinear as well as to linear algorithms.